Metallurgy of Raw Polymetallic Minerals

Metallurgy of Raw Polymetallic Minerals


Ferromanganese nodules (FMNs), cobalt-manganese crusts (CMCs), sulphide ores, and mineral sediments are called
raw polymetallic minerals.

An aspiration to establish an unlimited raw materials base of cobalt, nickel, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and sometimes even silver and gold, compels some countries to make huge investments into mining and processing of deep-sea oceanic nodules.

The analysis of original research works and reviews proves that the scientists apply complex technological schemes
for a more complete recovery of nickel, cobalt, copper, and manganese. Such schemes are comprised of a fixed sequence of hydrometallurgical, chemical, electrometallurgical and even bacterial processes. However, the prevailing ones are hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical methods for the recovery of metals from the raw polymetallic minerals.

Below you can learn more about the metallurgy of ferromanganese nodules with specific references to some researches and experiments.


Ferromanganese Nodules Metallurgy


FMNs true density, gr/cm3:

  • wet – 2.91 3.53;
  • dry – 2.27 2.92;
  • burnt – 1.68 2.02




                                 Hydrometallurgical Method                                                  Electrometallurgical Method